Lokin Jr. vs Commission on Elections
GR No. 179431-32
Facts: The Citizen’s Battle Against Corruption (CIBAC) was one of the organized groups duly registered under the partylist system of representation that manifested their intention to participate in the May 14, 2007 synchronized national and local elections. Together with its manifestation of intent to participate, CIBAC, through its President Emmanuel Joel J. Villanueva, submitted a list of 5 nominees from which its representatives would be chosen should CIBAC obtain the required number of qualifying votes. The nominees in order that their names appeared in the certificate of nomination dated March 29, 2007, were: 1.) Emmanuel Joel J. Villanueva; 2.) herein petitioner Luis K. Lokin Jr.; 3.) Cinchora C. Cruz-Gonzales; 4.) Sherwin Tugma; and 5.) Emil L. Galang. The nominees certificate of acceptance were attached to the certificate of nomination filed by CIBAC. The list of nominees was later published in two newspaper of general circulation. Prior to elections, however, CIBAC still through Villanueva filed a certificate of nomination, substitution and amendment of the list of nominees dated May 7, 2007, hereby it withdrew the nominations of Lokin, Tugma and Galang and substituted Armi Jane R. Borje as one of the nominees.
Issue: Whether or not the substitution is valid.
Held: No. The legislative power of the government is vested exclusively in accordance with the doctrine of separation of power. As a general rule, the legislative cannot surrender pr abdicate its legislative power for doing so will be unconstitutional. Although the power to make laws cannot be delegated by the legislative to any other authority, a power that is not legislative in character may be delegated.
Under certain circumstances, the legislature can delegate to executive officers and administrative boards the authority to adopt and promulgate IRRs. To render such delegation lawful, the legislature must declare the policy of the law and fix the legal principles that are to control in given cases. The legislature should set a definite or primary standard to guide those empowered to execute the law. For as long as the policy is laid down and a proper standard is established by statute, there can be no unconstitutional delegation of legislative power when the legislature leaves to selected instrumentalities the duty of making subordinate rules within the prescribed limits, although there is conferred upon the executive officer or administrative board a large measure of discretion. There is a distinction between the delegation of power to make a law and the conferment of an authority or a discretion to be exercised under and in pursuance of the law, for the power to make laws necessarily involves a discretion as to what it shall be.
To be valid, therefore, the administrative IRRs must comply with the following requisites to be valid:
- Its promulgation must be authorized by the legislature;
- It must be within the scope of the authority given by the legislature;
- It must be promulgated in accordance with thr prescribed procedure;
- It must be reasonable.
The COMELEC, despite the role as implementing arm of the government in the enforcement and administration of all laws and regulations relative to the conduct of an election, has neither the authority nor the license to expand, extend, or add anything to the law it seeks to implement. The IRRs the COMELEC issues for that purpose should always accord with the law to be implemented, and should not be override, supplant or modify the law. It is basic that the IRRs should remain consistent with the law they intend to carry out.