PNB vs CFI Pasig (G.R. No. 63201 May 27, 1992)

Philippine National Bank vs Court of First Instance of Pasig, Rizal Branch XXI
G.R. No. 63201 May 27, 1992

Facts: Private respondents are the registered owners of three parcels of land in Pasig, Metro Manila covered by OCT No. 853, TCT Nos. 32843 and 32897 of the Registry of Deeds of Rizal. On March 1, 1954, private respondents entered into a contract of lease with Philippine Blooming Mills, Co., Inc., (PBM) whereby the latter shall lease the aforementioned parcels of land as factory site. PBM was duly organized and incorporated on January 19, 1952 with a corporate term of twenty-five (25) years. This leasehold right of PBM covering the parcels of land was duly annotated at the back of the above stated certificates of title as Entry No. 9367/T-No. 32843. The contract of lease provides that the term of the lease is for twenty years beginning from the date of the contract and “is extendable for another term of twenty years at the option of the LESSEE should its term of existence be extended in accordance with law.”. The contract also states that the lessee agrees to “use the property as factory site and for that purpose to construct whatever buildings or improvements may be necessary or convenient and/or . . . for any purpose it may deem fit; and before the termination of the lease to remove all such buildings and improvements. In accordance with the contract, PBM introduced on the land, buildings, machineries and other useful improvements. These constructions and improvements were registered with the Registry of Deeds of Rizal and annotated at the back of the respondents’ certificates of title as Entry No. 85213/T-No. 43338. On October 11, 1963, PBM executed in favor of Philippine National Bank (PNB), petitioner herein, a deed of assignment, conveying and transferring all its rights and interests under the contract of lease which it executed with private respondents. The assignment was for and in consideration of the loans granted by PNB to PBM. The deed of assignment was registered and annotated at the back of the private respondents’ certificates of title as Entry No. 85215/TNo. 32843. On November 6, 1963 and December 23, 1963 respectively, PBM executed in favor of PNB a real estate mortgage for a loan of P100,000.00 and an addendum to real estate mortgage for another loan of P1,590,000.00, covering all the improvements constructed by PBM on the leased premises. These mortgages were registered and annotated at the back of respondents’ certificates as Entry No. 85214/T-No. 43338 and Entry No. 870971/T-No. 32843, respectively. On October 7, 1981, private respondents filed a motion in the same proceedings which was given a different case number to wit, LRC Case No.  R-2744, because of the payment of filing fees for the motion. The motion sought to cancel the annotations on respondents’ certificates of title pertaining to the assignment by PBM to PNB of the former’s leasehold rights, inclusion of improvements and the real estate mortgages made by PBM in favor of PNB, on the ground that the contract of lease entered into between PBM and respondents-movants had already expired by the failure of PBM and/or its assignee to exercise the option to renew the second 20-year lease commencing on March 1, 1974 and also by the failure of PBM to extend its corporate existence in accordance with law. The motion also states that since PBM failed to remove its improvements on the leased premises before the expiration of the contract of lease, such improvements shall accrue to respondents as owners of the land.

Issue: Whether or not the corporate life of PBM was extended by the continuance of the lease and subsequent registration of the title to the improvements under its name.

Held: No. The contract of lease expressly provides that the term of the lease shall be twenty years from the execution of the contract but can be extended for another period of twenty years at the option of the lessee should the corporate term be extended in accordance with law. Clearly, the option of the lessee to extend the lease for another period of twenty years can be exercised only if the lessee as corporation renews or extends its corporate term of existence in accordance with the Corporation Code which is the applicable law. Contracts are to be interpreted according to their literal meaning and should not be interpreted beyond their obvious intendment. Thus, in the instant case, the initial term of the contract of lease which commenced on March 1, 1954 ended on March 1, 1974. PBM as lessee continued to occupy the leased premises beyond that date with the acquiescence and consent of the respondents as lessor. Records show however, that PBM as a corporation had a corporate life of only twenty-five (25) years which ended an January 19, 1977. It should be noted however that PBM allowed its corporate term to expire without complying with the requirements provided by law for the extension of its corporate term of existence.

Section 11 of Corporation Code provides that a corporation shall exist for a period not exceeding fifty (50) years from the date of incorporation unless sooner dissolved or unless said period is extended. Upon the expiration of the period fixed in the articles of incorporation in the absence of compliance with the legal requisites for the extension of the period, the corporation ceases to exist and is dissolved ipso facto. When the period of corporate life expires, the corporation ceases to be a body corporate for the purpose of continuing the business for which it was organized. But it shall nevertheless be continued as a body corporate for three years after the time when it would have been so dissolved, for the purpose of prosecuting and defending suits by or against it and enabling it gradually to settle and close its affairs, to dispose of and convey its property and to divide its assets. There is no need for the institution of a proceeding for quo warranto to determine the time or date of the dissolution of a corporation because the period of corporate existence is provided in the articles of incorporation. When such period expires and without any extension having been made pursuant to law, the corporation is dissolved automatically insofar as the continuation of its business is concerned. The quo warranto proceeding under Rule 66 of the Rules of Court, as amended, may be instituted by the Solicitor General only for the involuntary dissolution of a corporation on the following grounds: a) when the corporation has offended against a provision of an Act for its creation or renewal; b) when it has forfeited its privileges and franchises by non-user; c) when it has committed or omitted an act which amounts to a surrender of its corporate rights, privileges or franchises; d) when it has mis-used a right, privilege or franchise conferred upon it by law, or when it has exercised a right, privilege or franchise in contravention of law. Hence, there is no need for the SEC to make an involuntary dissolution of a corporation whose corporate term had ended because its articles of incorporation had in effect expired by its own limitation.

Considering the foregoing in relation to the contract of lease between the parties herein, when PBM’s corporate life ended on January 19, 1977 and its 3-year period for winding up and liquidation expired on January 19, 1980, the option of extending the lease was likewise terminated on January 19, 1977 because PBM failed to renew or extend its corporate life in accordance with law. From then on, the respondents can exercise their right to terminate the lease pursuant to the stipulations in the contract.


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