Republic vs Gingoyon
481 SCRA 457 [GR No. 166429 December 19, 2005]
Facts: The Ninoy Aquino International Airport Passenger Terminal III (NAIA 3) was conceived, designed and constructed to serve as the country’s show window to the world. Regrettably, it has spawned controversies. Regrettably too, despite the apparent completion of the terminal complex way back it has not yet been operated. This has caused immeasurable economic damage to the country, not to mention its deplorable discredit in the international community. In the first case that reached this Court, Agan v. PIATCO,the contracts which the Government had with the contractor were voided for being contrary to law and public policy. The second case now before the Court involves the matter of just compensation due the contractor for the terminal complex it built. We decide the case on the basis of fairness, the same norm that pervades both the Court’s 2004 Resolution in the first case and the latest expropriation law. The present controversy has its roots with the promulgation of the Court’s decision in Agan v. PIATCO,promulgated in 2003 (2003 Decision). This decision nullified the “Concession Agreement for the Build-Operate-and-Transfer Arrangement of the Ninoy Aquino International Airport Passenger Terminal III” entered into between the Philippine Government (Government) and the Philippine International Air Terminals Co., Inc. (PIATCO), as well as the amendments and supplements thereto. The agreement had authorized PIATCO to build a new international airport terminal (NAIA 3), as well as a franchise to operate and maintain the said terminal during the concession period of 25 years. The contracts were nullified, among others, that Paircargo Consortium, predecessor of PIATCO, did not possess the requisite financial capacity when it was awarded the NAIA 3 contract and that the agreement was contrary to public policy. At the time of the promulgation of the 2003 Decision, the NAIA 3 facilities had already been built by PIATCO and were nearing completion. However, the ponencia was silent as to the legal status of the NAIA 3 facilities following the nullification of the contracts, as well as whatever rights of PIATCO for reimbursement for its expenses in the construction of the facilities. PIATCO and several respondents-intervenors filed their respective motions for the reconsideration of the 2003 Decision. These motions were denied by the Court in its Resolution dated 21 January 2004 (2004 Resolution). However, the Court this time squarely addressed the issue of the rights of PIATCO to refund, compensation or reimbursement for its expenses in the construction of the NAIA 3 facilities. After the promulgation of the rulings in Agan, the NAIA 3 facilities have remained in the possession of PIATCO, despite the avowed intent of the Government to put the airport terminal into immediate operation. The Government and PIATCO conducted several rounds of negotiation regarding the NAIA 3 facilities. It also appears that arbitral proceedings were commenced before the International Chamber of Commerce International Court of Arbitration and the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes, although the Government has raised jurisdictional questions before those two bodies. Then, on 21 December 2004, the Government11 filed a Complaint for expropriation with the Pasay City Regional Trial Court (RTC), together with an Application for Special Raffle seeking the immediate holding of a special raffle. The Government sought upon the filing of the complaint the issuance of a writ of possession authorizing it to take immediate possession and control over the NAIA 3 facilities. The Government also declared that it had deposited the amount of P3,002,125,000.0012 (3 Billion) in Cash with the Land Bank of the Philippines, representing the NAIA 3 terminal’s assessed value for taxation purposes. The case was raffled to Branch 117 of the Pasay City RTC, presided by respondent judge Hon. Henrick F. Gingoyon (Hon. Gingoyon). On the same day that the Complaint was filed, the RTC issued an Order directing the issuance of a writ of possession to the Government, authorizing it to “take or enter upon the possession” of the NAIA 3 facilities. Citing the case of City of Manila v. Serrano, the RTC noted that it had the ministerial duty to issue the writ of possession upon the filing of a complaint for expropriation sufficient in form and substance, and upon deposit made by the government of the amount equivalent to the assessed value of the property subject to expropriation. The RTC found these requisites present, particularly noting that “[t]he case record shows that [the Government has] deposited the assessed value of the [NAIA 3 facilities] in the Land Bank of the Philippines, an authorized depositary, as shown by the certification attached to their complaint.” Also on the same day, the RTC issued a Writ of Possession. According to PIATCO, the Government was able to take possession over the NAIA 3 facilities immediately after the Writ of Possession was issued. However, on 4 January 2005, the RTC issued another Order designed to supplement its 21 December 2004 Order and the Writ of Possession. In the 4 January 2005 Order, now assailed in the present petition, the RTC noted that its earlier issuance of its writ of possession was pursuant to Section 2, Rule 67 of the 1997 Rules of Civil Procedure. However, it was observed that Republic Act No. 8974 (Rep. Act No. 8974), otherwise known as “An Act to Facilitate the Acquisition of Right-of-Way, Site or Location for National Government Infrastructure Projects and For Other Purposes” and its Implementing Rules and Regulations (Implementing Rules) had amended Rule 67 in many respects.
Issue: Whether or not RA 8794 should be applied in the instant expropriation case and not Rule 67.
Held: Yes. At the very least, Rule 67 cannot apply in this case without violating the 2004 Resolution. Even assuming that Rep. Act No. 8974 does not govern in this case, it does not necessarily follow that Rule 67 should then apply. After all, adherence to the letter of Section 2, Rule 67 would in turn violate the Court’s requirement in the 2004 Resolution that there must first be payment of just compensation to PIATCO before the Government may take over the property.
It is the plain intent of Rep. Act No. 8974 to supersede the system of deposit under Rule 67 with the scheme of “immediate payment” in cases involving national government infrastructure projects.
As acknowledged in the 2003 Decision, the development of NAIA 3 was made pursuant to a build-operate-and-transfer arrangement pursuant to Republic Act No. 6957, as amended,which pertains to infrastructure or development projects normally financed by the public sector but which are now wholly or partly implemented by the private sector. Under the build-operate-and-transfer scheme, it is the project proponent which undertakes the construction, including the financing, of a given infrastructure facility.
There can be no doubt that PIATCO has ownership rights over the facilities which it had financed and constructed. The 2004 Resolution squarely recognized that right when it mandated the payment of just compensation to PIATCO prior to the takeover by the Government of NAIA 3. The fact that the Government resorted to eminent domain proceedings in the first place is a concession on its part of PIATCO’s ownership. Indeed, if no such right is recognized, then there should be no impediment for the Government to seize control of NAIA 3 through ordinary ejectment proceedings.
Since the rights of PIATCO over the NAIA 3 facilities are established, the nature of these facilities should now be determined.
The law classifies the NAIA 3 facilities as real properties just like the soil to which they are adhered. Any sub-classifications of real property and divergent treatment based thereupon for purposes of expropriation must be based on substantial distinctions, otherwise the equal protection clause of the Constitution is violated. There may be perhaps a molecular distinction between soil and the inorganic improvements adhered thereto, yet there are no purposive distinctions that would justify a variant treatment for purposes of expropriation. Both the land itself and the improvements thereupon are susceptible to private ownership independent of each other, capable of pecuniary estimation, and if taken from the owner, considered as a deprivation of property. The owner of improvements seized through expropriation suffers the same degree of loss as the owner of land seized through similar means. Equal protection demands that all persons or things similarly situated should be treated alike, both as to rights conferred and responsibilities imposed. For purposes of expropriation, parcels of land are similarly situated as the buildings or improvements constructed thereon, and a disparate treatment between those two classes of real property infringes the equal protection clause.
Even as the provisions of Rep. Act No. 8974 call for that law’s application in this case, the threshold test must still be met whether its implementation would conform to the dictates of the Court in the 2004 Resolution. Unlike in the case of Rule 67, the application of Rep. Act No. 8974 will not contravene the 2004 Resolution, which requires the payment of just compensation before any takeover of the NAIA 3 facilities by the Government. The 2004 Resolution does not particularize the extent such payment must be effected before the takeover, but it unquestionably requires at least some degree of payment to the private property owner before a writ of possession may issue. The utilization of Rep. Act No. 8974 guarantees compliance with this bare minimum requirement, as it assures the private property owner the payment of, at the very least, the proffered value of the property to be seized. Such payment of the proffered value to the owner, followed by the issuance of the writ of possession in favor of the Government, is precisely the schematic under Rep. Act No. 8974, one which facially complies with the prescription laid down in the 2004 Resolution.
Clearly then, we see no error on the part of the RTC when it ruled that Rep. Act No. 8974 governs the instant expropriation proceedings.