Gonzales vs Climax Mining Ltd
512 SCRA 148 [GR No. 161957 January 22, 2007]
Facts: This is a consolidation of two petitions rooted in the same disputed Addendum Contract entered into by the parties. In G.R. No. 161957, the Court in its Decision of 28 February 2005 denied the Rule 45 petition of petitioner Jorge Gonzales (Gonzales). It held that the DENR Panel of Arbitrators had no jurisdiction over the complaint for the annulment of the Addendum Contract on grounds of fraud and violation of the Constitution and that the action should have been brought before the regular courts as it involved judicial issues. Both parties filed separate motions for reconsideration. Gonzales avers in his Motion for Reconsideration that the Court erred in holding that the DENR Panel of Arbitrators was bereft of jurisdiction, reiterating its argument that the case involves a mining dispute that properly falls within the ambit of the Panels authority. Gonzales adds that the Court failed to rule on other issues he raised relating to the sufficiency of his complaint before the DENR Panel of Arbitrators and the timeliness of its filing. Respondents Climax Mining Ltd., et al., (respondents) filed their Motion for Partial Reconsideration and/or Clarification seeking reconsideration of that part of the Decision holding that the case should not be brought for arbitration under Republic Act (R.A.) No. 876, also known as the Arbitration Law. Respondents, citing American jurisprudence and the UNCITRAL Model Law, argue that the arbitration clause in the Addendum Contract should be treated as an agreement independent of the other terms of the contract, and that a claimed rescission of the main contract does not avoid the duty to arbitrate. Respondents add that Gonzales argument relating to the alleged invalidity of the Addendum Contract still has to be proven and adjudicated on in a proper proceeding; that is, an action separate from the motion to compel arbitration. Pending judgment in such separate action, the Addendum Contract remains valid and binding and so does the arbitration clause therein. Respondents add that the holding in the Decision that the case should not be brought under the ambit of the Arbitration Law appears to be premised on Gonzales having impugn[ed] the existence or validity of the addendum contract. If so, it supposedly conveys the idea that Gonzales unilateral repudiation of the contract or mere allegation of its invalidity is all it takes to avoid arbitration. Hence, respondents submit that the courts holding that the case should not be brought under the ambit of the Arbitration Law be understood or clarified as operative only where the challenge to the arbitration agreement has been sustained by final judgment.
Issue: Whether or not it was proper for the RTC, in the proceeding to compel arbitration under R.A. No. 876, to order the parties to arbitrate even though the defendant therein has raised the twin issues of validity and nullity of the Addendum Contract and, consequently, of the arbitration clause therein as well
Held: Yes. Disputes do not go to arbitration unless and until the parties have agreed to abide by the arbitrators decision. Necessarily, a contract is required for arbitration to take place and to be binding. R.A. No. 876 recognizes the contractual nature of the arbitration agreement.
The doctrine of separability, or severability as other writers call it, enunciates that an arbitration agreement is independent of the main contract. The arbitration agreement is to be treated as a separate agreement and the arbitration agreement does not automatically terminate when the contract of which it is part comes to an end.
The separability of the arbitration agreement is especially significant to the determination of whether the invalidity of the main contract also nullifies the arbitration clause. Indeed, the doctrine denotes that the invalidity of the main contract, also referred to as the container contract, does not affect the validity of the arbitration agreement. Irrespective of the fact that the main contract is invalid, the arbitration clause/agreement still remains valid and enforceable.
The separability of the arbitration clause is confirmed in Art. 16(1) of the UNCITRAL Model Law and Art. 21(2) of the UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules.
The proceeding in a petition for arbitration under R.A. No. 876 is limited only to the resolution of the question of whether the arbitration agreement exists. Second, the separability of the arbitration clause from the Addendum Contract means that validity or invalidity of the Addendum Contract will not affect the enforceability of the agreement to arbitrate. Thus, Gonzales petition for certiorari should be dismissed.
This brings us back to G.R. No. 161957. The adjudication of the petition in G.R. No. 167994 effectively modifies part of the Decision dated 28 February 2005 in G.R. No. 161957. Hence, we now hold that the validity of the contract containing the agreement to submit to arbitration does not affect the applicability of the arbitration clause itself. A contrary ruling would suggest that a parties mere repudiation of the main contract is sufficient to avoid arbitration. That is exactly the situation that the separability doctrine, as well as jurisprudence applying it, seeks to avoid. We add that when it was declared in G.R. No. 161957 that the case should not be brought for arbitration, it should be clarified that the case referred to is the case actually filed by Gonzales before the DENR Panel of Arbitrators, which was for the nullification of the main contract on the ground of fraud, as it had already been determined that the case should have been brought before the regular courts involving as it did judicial issues.